icon planifAdapting to climate change requires the implementation of several complementary measures on the same territory to ensure the safety of both the public and infrastructures. There are a host of strategies and measures that can be applied to deal with coastal risks. However, it is important to ensure that the chosen measures are appropriate for the community and the site concerned.

At the community scale, adopted measures must include both planning and regulatory measures along with protection, accommodation and restoration techniques.

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The concept of using complementary measures to limit risks during storm surges

Examples of planning and regulatory tools appear hereunder. Download the files to find out more…


The tools presented are those described in the guides produced by the Atlantic Climate Adaptation Solutions Association (ACASA).

Policy and planning frameworks tools

Retreat

Wetland policy

Wetland policies protect coastal wetlands by providing goals and objectives for controlling development in wetland areas and in some cases, wetland restoration.

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Tax or development incentive

Incentives can be used in the context of coastal adaptation planning including tax incentives, density bonusing, and development incentives.

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Strategic land acquisition (land bank)

Strategic land acquisition plans are used to proactively select areas of land that a community would like to acquire as public land.

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Stormwater management plan

Stormwater management plans include guidelines and standards for development that allow for as much rainwater as possible to be absorbed into the ground. This tool is used to avoid flooding during heavy rainfall events.

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Watershed management plan

A watershed management plan protects water resources, mitigates pollution, protects habitat, and manages stormwater runoff within a regional watershed area.

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Shoreline/coastal management plan

A shoreline/coastal management plan specifically addresses management of the shoreline and deals with coastal issues.

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Climate change action/adaptation plan

Climate change action/adaptation plans address the impacts of climate change on a community based on scenarios that are predicted for the local context.

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Integrated community sustainability plan

Integrated community sustainability plans are management plans that outline a vision for a liveable, healthy, and safe community into the future.

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Regional/rural plan (non-statutory), land use policy

A regional or rural plan involves inter-municipal planning for the future of a region to deal with issues facing multiple communities

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Secondary community plan or area plan

A secondary community plan is a legislative tool that guides all other plans and bylaws within a specified area within a municipality. It includes a vision for the future of the area and strategies for achieving that vision and dealing with challenges.

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Statutory community plan

A statutory community plan is a legislative tool that guides all other plans and bylaws within a municipality. It includes a vision for the future of a community and strategies for achieving that vision and dealing with challenges.

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Accommodation

Tax or development incentive

Incentives can be used in the context of coastal adaptation planning including tax incentives, density bonusing, and development incentives.

Download

Stormwater management plan

Stormwater management plans include guidelines and standards for development that allow for as much rainwater as possible to be absorbed into the ground. This tool is used to avoid flooding during heavy rainfall events.

Download

Watershed management plan

A watershed management plan protects water resources, mitigates pollution, protects habitat, and manages stormwater runoff within a regional watershed area.

Download

Shoreline/coastal management plan

A shoreline/coastal management plan specifically addresses management of the shoreline and deals with coastal issues.

Download

Climate change action/adaptation plan

Climate change action/adaptation plans address the impacts of climate change on a community based on scenarios that are predicted for the local context.

Download

Integrated community sustainability plan

Integrated community sustainability plans are management plans that outline a vision for a liveable, healthy, and safe community into the future.

Download

Regional/rural plan (non-statutory), land use policy

A regional or rural plan involves inter-municipal planning for the future of a region to deal with issues facing multiple communities

Download

Secondary community plan or area plan

A secondary community plan is a legislative tool that guides all other plans and bylaws within a specified area within a municipality. It includes a vision for the future of the area and strategies for achieving that vision and dealing with challenges.

Download

Statutory community plan

A statutory community plan is a legislative tool that guides all other plans and bylaws within a municipality. It includes a vision for the future of a community and strategies for achieving that vision and dealing with challenges.

Download

Emergency preparredness/management plan

Emergency management plans outline steps to mitigate damage from disasters and steps to respond after a disaster occurs

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Protection

Climate change action/adaptation plan

Climate change action/adaptation plans address the impacts of climate change on a community based on scenarios that are predicted for the local context.

Download

Integrated community sustainability plan

Integrated community sustainability plans are management plans that outline a vision for a liveable, healthy, and safe community into the future.

Download

Regional/rural plan (non-statutory), land use policy

A regional or rural plan involves inter-municipal planning for the future of a region to deal with issues facing multiple communities

Download

Secondary community plan or area plan

A secondary community plan is a legislative tool that guides all other plans and bylaws within a specified area within a municipality. It includes a vision for the future of the area and strategies for achieving that vision and dealing with challenges.

Download

Statutory community plan

A statutory community plan is a legislative tool that guides all other plans and bylaws within a municipality. It includes a vision for the future of a community and strategies for achieving that vision and dealing with challenges.

Download


Regulations and land use change tools

Retreat

Abandonment

This is a "do nothing" approach where existing structures and infrastructure are not repaired once damage occurs.

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Managed retreat/abandonment

Managed retreat and abandonment is a long-term solution for high risk areas along the coast. It involves moving structures and infrastructure back from the coast.

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Conservation easements

An easement is a written agreement and partnership with flexible arrangements between a landowner and government, or organization, to conserve land without changing ownership of the land.

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Rolling easements

Rolling easements prohibit hard armouring along the coast and designate land along the coast as public land. Property lines move with the coastline as it changes to ensure that public land remains accessible.

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Land trust

A land trust is a non-profit organization that acquires and manages land for non-development purposes such as conservation of significant habitats.

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Land-use conversion & re-development

Land use conversion and redevelopment can be used to remove unsuitable land uses and structures from coastal areas that are publicly owned.

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Land swap

A land swap can be used to exchange land between two levels of government or between a government and a landowner.

Télécharger

Transfer of development credits

Transferable development rights are market incentives used for new developments and are designed to shift development away from certain areas to locations deemed to be safer and more sustainable.

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Development standards

Development standards establish and prescribe criteria, such as density and setbacks, for new development.

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Subdivision by-law or regulation

A subdivision by-law or restrictions regulate how existing land is subdivided for new development. This tool can be used to restrict development in coastal areas and prevent development on important coastal lands.

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Setbacks

Coastal setbacks enforce mandatory distances between the water and man-made structures. There are a variety of setback types including horizontal, elevation, fixed, retreating, and buffers.

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Land use by-law and zoning

Land use zoning and by-laws are used to establish the types of land use and development permitted in designated areas. A variety of zoning types have been used for coastal planning including: land use zoning (generally), overlay zoning, hazard zoning, performance zoning, conservation/protection zoning, temporal zoning, down zoning.

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Wetland regulation

Wetland regulations protect coastal wetlands by controlling development in wetland areas through legislation.

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Accommodation

Foreshore lease

Foreshore lease is when a municipality leases the foreshore from the province in order to have authority to alter that area of land.

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Waiver

Waivers can be a requirement within a development agreement whereby landowners sign and acknowledge that they understand the risks associated with developing on coastal property.

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Variances

A variance can allow a developer to build in a way that does not comply with the current bylaw as long as they can prove that the development is suitable for the site.

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Development standards

Development standards establish and prescribe criteria, such as density and setbacks, for new development.

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Setbacks

Coastal setbacks enforce mandatory distances between the water and man-made structures. There are a variety of setback types including horizontal, elevation, fixed, retreating, and buffers.

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Land use by-law and zoning

Land use zoning and by-laws are used to establish the types of land use and development permitted in designated areas. A variety of zoning types have been used for coastal planning including: land use zoning (generally), overlay zoning, hazard zoning, performance zoning, conservation/protection zoning, temporal zoning, down zoning.

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Protection

Foreshore lease

Foreshore lease is when a municipality leases the foreshore from the province in order to have authority to alter that area of land.

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Site planning and design tools

Retreat

Conservation subdivision design

Conservation subdivision design is a residential development model which regulates the structure, scale, and location of development, while ensuring that a significant percentage, typically 40 percent or more, of the subdivision area is retained as open space.

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Urban design standards

Urban design standards include guidelines and standards for development. Urban design standards is on the character of an area created through design.

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Accommodation

Site Monitoring

Monitoring involves recording changes along the shoreline. This can be an important step in helping to understand coastal risks and habitat health.

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Green shoreline rating system

The Green Shores Program uses a rating model, based on green building rating models such as LEED, for coastal properties.

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Urban design standards

Urban design standards include guidelines and standards for development. Urban design standards is on the character of an area created through design.

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Erosion and flooding
In the example above, see the evolution of coastal erosion in the Pigeon Hill area from 1944 to 2012. Move the arrows!

A rigorous process

Scenarios and risks

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Gain better knowledge of damage risks and risks to human health posed by erosion and flooding.

Maps and zoning

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Delineate areas at risk based on recommendations.

Priorities and potential strategies

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Identify and prioritise elements at stake within risk areas.

Evaluation and strategy selection

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Conduct more extensive studies for some of the adaptation measures under consideration.

Implementation plans

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Define the details on when and how the actions will be taken and implemented.

Project progression

Follow the progress of the project in your community using the interactive map.

View the map

Possible solutions

Adapting to climate change requires the implementation of several complementary measures on the same territory to ensure the safety of both the public and infrastructures. Here are some possible solutions.